Spatial updating

Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices (SSD).

There are two major manners to represent spatial information; egocentrically, where the spatial relations between the observer’s position and the position of each object are stored in spatial memory; or allocentrically, where the spatial relations among the observed objects are stored in spatial memory (Mc Namara, 2003). Therefore, participants actively explored the environment, which included the target images and environmental features such as the floor, thus providing novel insights on active spatial exploration performed through audition (Klatzky et al., 1998; Gaunet et al., 2001). Finally, the use of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device was necessary because audition is ill-suited for exploring silent objects (Yamamoto and Shelton, 2009; Avraamides and Kelly, 2010). doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0230 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Klatzky, R. In fact, when observers learnt the scene egocentrically, the resulting spatial representation was egocentric; contrarily, when observers learnt the scene allocentrically, the resulting spatial representation was allocentric (see also Wolbers and Büchel, 2005; Pasqualotto and Proulx, 2013; Pasqualotto et al., 2013a; Thibault et al., 2013). Additionally, once spatial representation is formed, it can be updated by subsequent input (Simons and Wang, 1998; Mou et al., 2004).

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Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgment of relative direction task (JRD) was used to determine how this scene was represented. “Sensory substitution for orientation and mobility: what progress are we making?

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